contact us photo gallery framework report resources news our mission about us home


ActionAid (2009) Five out of ten? Assessing progress towards the AU’s 10% budget target for agriculture, available at

ActionAid (2010) Fertile Ground: How governments and donors can halve hunger by supporting small farmers, available at

ActionAid (2011) Investing in Women Smallholder Farmers: An ActionAid International Briefing, available at

ActionAid et al (2012) What Works for Women: Proven approaches for empowering women smallholders and achieving food security, available at

AGRA (2012) Kenyan Government and AGRA Pledge to Work Together to Improve Incomes for Rural Farmers through Innovative Financing Program (press release 31 May 2012), available at

Allen S and M Qaim (2012) Agricultural Productivity and Public Expenditures in Sub-Saharan Africa, IFPRI WCAO, available at

APPG (2012) Growing Out of Poverty: A UK Parliamentary Inquiry into supporting and developing African agriculture, The All Party Parliamentary Group on Agriculture and Food for Development, available at

ASFG (2010) Africa’s Smallholder Farmers: Approaches that work for viable livelihoods, A report by the African Smallholder Farmers Group (ASFG) available at

Baden S (2013) Women‘s collective action in agricultural markets: The missing link for empowerment? ‘World Café’ discussion session at the Donor Platform on Agriculture AGM, The Hague, 30-31 January 2013, available at

Bafana B (2008) Gender revolution: a prerequisite for change in New Agriculturalist “Focus on” section, available at

Benin S, T Mogues, G Cudjoe, J Randriamamonjy (2009) Public expenditures and agricultural productivity growth in Ghana, IFPRI Contributed Paper to IAAE, Beijing 2009, available at

Bienabe E and D Sautier (2004) The role of small scale producers’ organizations to address market access, CIRAD, Montpellier, available at

Bijman J, G Ton and G Meijerink (2007) Empowering Smallholder Farmers in Markets: National and International Policy Initiatives, EFSIM Working paper 1, available at

CAFOD (2011) Thinking Big, Acting Small – How the G8 should approach economic development and recovery in developing countries, available at

Chinsinga B and M Chasukwa (2012) The Green Belt Initiative and Land Grabs in Malawi, Future Agricultures Policy Brief, available at

Christian Aid (2011) Healthy Harvests: The benefits of sustainable agriculture in Africa and Asia, available at 

CIDSE (2012) Agriculture: from Problem to Solution - Achieving the Right to Food in a Climate-Constrained World, available at

Conway G (2012) One billion hungry: Can we feed the world?, Cornell University Press,  Ithaca and London. Facts and Figures summary produced by Katy Wilson available at

Cotula L, S Vermeulen, R Leonard and J Keeley (2009) Land grab or development opportunity? Agricultural investment and international land deals in Africa, FAO, IIED and IFAD, available at

Cotula L and E Polack (2012) The global land rush: what the evidence reveals about scale and geography, IIED Briefing Papers, available at

Curtis M (2012) Informal presentation to African Small Holders Farmers Group meeting, 14 June 2012.

Dalberg (2012) Catalyzing smallholder agricultural finance, Dalberg Global Development Advisors, available at

Daniel S and A Mittal (2010) (Mis)investment in agriculture – The role of the International Finance Corporation in global land grabs, The Oakland Institute, available at

DFID (2012) “Britain to help poor farmers to feed millions”, press release on Rio+20 summit, dated 22 June 2012, available at

Diao X, J Thurlow, S Benin and S Fan (2012) Strategies and Priorities for African Agriculture: Economywide Perspectives from Country Studies, IFPRI, Issue Brief available at  

Dorward A, P Hazell and C Poulton (2009) Rethinking agricultural input subsidies

in poor rural economies, Future Agricultures Briefing note, available at

Dorward A and E Chirwa (2011) The Malawi Agricultural Input Subsidy Programme: 2005-6 to 2008-9, International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability (IJAS), January 2011, volume 9:1, available at

Dixon J, A Tanyeri-Abur and H Wattenbach (2004) Framework for analyzing impacts of globalization on smallholders, FAO Agricultural Management, Marketing and Finance Occasional Paper, available at

Eicher CK (2007) Agricultural Extension in Africa and Asia, Staff Paper 2007-05, Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University, available at

Fan, S et al (2009) Public Spending for Agriculture in Africa: Trends and Composition, ReSAKSS Working paper No 28, available at

FANRPAN (2012) Strengthening the Capacity of Women Farmers to Influence Agricultural

Policy Development in Southern Africa, Women Accessing Realigned Markets (WARM) Project, available at

FAO (2009) Global agriculture towards 2050, prepared for High-level Expert Forum on How to Feed the World, Rome, 12-13 October 2009, available at

FAO (2010) Climate smart agriculture – Managing ecosystems for sustainable livelihoods, available at

FAO (2011a) The State of Food and Agriculture 2010-2011: Women in Agriculture – Closing the gender gap for development, available at

FAO (2011b) Save and Grow - A policymaker’s guide to the sustainable intensification of smallholder crop production, available at

FAO (2012a) The State of Food Insecurity in the World, FAO, IFAD and WFP, available at

FAO (2012b) The State of Food and Agriculture 2012 – Investing in Agriculture for a Better Future, available at

FAO Scarcity of Water and Land Resources (IFA-WALS) Fact Sheet, available at

Fischer E and M Qaim (2011) Linking Smallholders to Markets: Determinants and Impacts of Farmer Collective Action in Kenya, available at

Garvelink, WJ (2012a) Land tenure, property rights and rural economic development in Africa, available at

Garvelink, WJ et al (2012b) Smallholder Agriculture: A Critical Factor in Poverty Reduction and Food Security in Africa, available at

Gilbert N (2012) “African Agriculture: Dirt Poor”, Nature Vol 483, Issue 7391, available at

Grain (2013) The G8 and land grabs in Africa, available at

GIZ and African Development Bank (2012) Policy Brief on Agricultural Finance in Africa, Making Finance Work for Africa Partnership, available at

GTZ (2005) Reforming Agricultural Development Banks, GTZ Division 41- Section Financial Systems Development, available at

Helfer LR (2004) Intellectual property rights in plant varieties - International legal regimes and policy options for national governments, FAO Legislative Study 85, FAO, Rome, available at

Hodinott J and L Haddad (1995) Does female income share influence household expenditures? Evidence from Cote d’Ivoire, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Volume 57, Issue 1, February 1995 available at

IAASTD (2009) Summary for Decision Makers of the Sub-Saharan African (SSA) Report, available at

IDC (2013) Oral evidence taken before the UK House of Commons International Development Committee (IDC) for the Inquiry into Global Food Security, 5 February 2013, transcript available at

IFAD (2010) Rural Poverty Report 2011, IFAD, available at

IFAD (2012) Land Tenure and Poverty Reduction, IFAD factsheet, available at

IFPRI (2006) From “Best Practice” to “Best Fit”: A Framework for Designing and Analyzing Pluralistic

Agricultural Advisory Services, IFPRI research brief, available at

IFPRI (2007) The Future of Small Farms for Poverty Reduction and Growth, IFPRI 2020 Discussion Paper 42, available at

IFPRI (2009) Climate Change - Impact on Agriculture and Costs of Adaptation, IFPRI Report, Washington DC, available at

IIED (2012) Putting farmers first: reshaping agricultural research in West Africa, IIED Briefing, January 2012, available at

IPCC (2007) Climate Change 2007 – Mitigation of climate change, Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, available at

Irz X, L Lin, C Thirtle and S Wiggins (2001) “Agricultural Productivity Growth and Poverty

Alleviation”, Development Policy Review, 2001, 19 (4): 449-466, available at

Jaffee S, S Henson and L Diaz Rios (2011) Making the Grade: Smallholder Farmers, Emerging Standards, and Development Assistance Programs in Africa, A Research Program Synthesis, World Bank, available at

Juma C (2013) The New Harvest: Agricultural Innovation in Africa, Oxford University Press, available at

Kahan DG (2007) Farm management extension services: a review of global experience, Agricultural Management, Marketing and Finance Occasional Paper No 21, FAO, Rome, available at

Livingston G, S Schonberger and S Delaney (2011) Sub-Saharan Africa: The state of smallholders in agriculture, Paper presented at the IFAD Conference on New Directions for Smallholder Agriculture, January 2011, Rome, Available at

Masangano C and C Mthinda (2012) Pluralistic Extension Service in Malawi, IFPRI Discussion Paper, available at 

Mehta L, Veldwisch GJ and Franco J (eds) (2012) “Water grabbing? Focus on the (re)appropriation of finite water resources”, Special Issue of Water Alternatives, Volume 5 Issue 2, June 2012, available at

Miller C and L Jones (2010) Agricultural Value Chain Finance – Tools and Lessons, FAO and Practical Action Publishing Ltd, Rugby UK, available at

Mitchell J and C Coles (eds) (2011), Markets and Rural Poverty: Upgrading in Value Chains, Earthscan, IDRC, available at  

Mwijage A, J Andersson, N de Ridder, F Baijukya, C Pacini and K Giller (2011) “Impact of land tenure change on subsistence agriculture: Implication on farm productivity of the farming system in Bukoba district, Tanzania”, Journal of African Studies and Development, Vol 3(3), available at

NEPAD (2013) Countries with compacts / Investment Plans, February 2013, summary table available at

NEPAD-OECD (2011) Draft Policy Framework for Investment in Agriculture, paper prepared as background document for the 5th NEPAD-OECD Ministerial Conference on 26-27 April 2011 in Dakar, Senegal, available at

OECD (2006) Promoting Pro-Poor Growth: Agriculture, DAC Reference document, available at

OHCHR (2010) “Agroecology outperforms large-scale industrial farming for global food security” (press release dated 22 June 2010, following seminar on The contribution of agroecological approaches to meet 2050 global food needs under the auspices of the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food), available at

OHCHR (2012) Women’s rights and the right to food - Report submitted by the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Olivier De Schutter, for the 22nd session of the Human Rights Council, available at

Ortman G and R King (2007) Agricultural Cooperatives I: History, Theory and Problems, Agrekon, Vol 46, No 1, March 2007, available at

Oxfam (2010a) Fighting Hunger in Brazil, an Oxfam case study, available at

Oxfam (2010b) Think big.  Go small - Adapting business models to incorporate smallholders into supply chains, Oxfam Briefings for Business No 6, International edition, available at

Oxfam (2012a) G8 food security alliance answers question hungry people have not asked, available at

Oxfam (2012b) Our Land, Our Lives: Time out on the global land rush, available at

Pinckney T and P Kimuyu (1994) “Land Tenure Reform in East Africa: Good, Bad or Unimportant?”, Journal of African Economies Vol 3, Issue 1, available at

Poole N and A De Frece (2010) A Review of Existing Organisational Forms of Smallholder Farmers’ Associations and their Contractual Relationships with other Market Participants in the East and Southern African ACP Region, SOAS Technical Report, available at

Practical Action (2008) Why the GM route won’t feed a hungry Africa, paper presented to the “Feeding the World” Conference, London, November 12 2008, available at

Practical Action (2012) Poor people’s energy outlook 2012: Energy for earning a living, Practical Action Publishing, Rugby, UK, available at

Pretty J (2006) Agroecological approaches to agricultural development, Background paper for RIMISP for the World Development Report 2008, available at

Quan J, SF Tan and C Toulmin (eds) (2004) Proceedings and summary of conclusions from the Land in Africa Conference held in London November 8-9, 2004, available at

Sanchez PA (2002) “Soil Fertility and Hunger in Africa”, Science Vol 295, 15 March 2002, pp2019-2020, available at

Scoones I (2008) Policy frameworks for increasing soil fertility in Africa: debating the alternatives, background paper for A Future Agricultures Consortium debate, available at 

Shepherd AW (2007) Approaches to linking producers to markets: A review of experiences to date, FAO Agricultural Management, Marketing and Finance Occasional Paper 13, available at

This is Africa (2012) “An enabling environment”, article in This is Africa Special report on smallholder value chains, The Financial Times CTA, available at

Toulmin C (2013) Oral evidence taken before the UK House of Commons International Development Committee (IDC) inquiry into Global Food Security, 5 February 2013, transcript available at

Tran M (2013) “Congo DRC farmers go back to school as new techniques take root”, article on The Guardian Poverty Matters blog, available at

UNDP (2006) Land rights reform and governance in Africa: How to make it work in the 21st Century?, available via

UNECA (2009) Economic Report on Africa 2009: Developing African Agriculture through Regional Value Chains, available at

Uwayezu E and T Mugiraneza (2011) Land Policy Reform in Rwanda and Land Tenure Security for all

Citizens: Provision and Recognition of Women’s Rights over Land, available at

Van Mele P, JW Bentley and RG Guei (eds) (2011) African Seed Enterprises: Sowing the Seeds of Food Security, CAB International, Wallingford, UK, available at

Van Schalkwyk H, J Groenewald, G Fraser, A Obi and A van Tilburg (eds) (2012) Unlocking Markets to smallholders – Lessons from South Africa, Mansholt Publication Series Vol 10, available at

Van Vark (2013) “New versus old media: how best to get information to smallholder farmers”, article in The Guardian Global Development Professional Network, 7 February 2013, available at

Vermeulen, S and L Cotula (2010) Making the most of agricultural investment: A survey of business models that provide opportunities for smallholders, FAO, IFAD and IIED, available at

Von Braun J and E Diaz-Bonillo (2008) Globalization of food and agriculture and the poor, IFPRI Issue Brief 52, available at

Vorley B, M Lundy and J MacGregor (2009), Business models that are inclusive of small farmers, paper prepared for FAO/UNIDO as background to the Global Agro-Industries Forum, New Delhi 8-11 April 2008, available at

Vorley B, L Cotula and M Chan (2012) Tipping the Balance: Policies to shape agricultural investments and markets in favour of small-scale farmers, available at

Waruru M (2011) “ICTs could fill agricultural extension gap, says meeting”, news article reporting on Innovations in Extension and Advisory Services: Linking Knowledge to Policy and Action for Food and Livelihoods conference held in Nairobi, 15-18 November 2011, available at .

WFP (2007) Ghana – Home-Grown School Feeding field case study, available at

WFP (2009) Home-Grown School Feeding – A framework to link school feeding with local agricultural production, WFP, available at

Wiggins S (2011) “Supporting Small Scale Farming” in Island nation or global citizen? Solving the food crisis by helping small scale farmers, World Vision Australia Policy Report, available at

Wiggins S (2012) ‘Linking smallholders to markets: the issues’ in Leaping and Learning: Strategies for Taking Agricultural Successes to Scale in Sub-Saharan Africa, report on workshop on linking farmers to markets in East Africa held in Johannesburg, 9 July 2012, Agriculture for Impact, ODI, FANRPAN and Imperial College London, available at

Williams T (2009) An African Success Story: Ghana’s Cocoa Marketing System, IDS Working paper 318, January 2009, available at

World Bank (2007a) Fertilizer Use in African Agriculture - Lessons Learned and Good Practice Guidelines, Directions in Development, Agriculture and Rural Development, The World Bank, Washington DC, available at

World Bank (2007b) World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for Development, The World Bank, available at

World Bank (2010) Yes Africa Can – Success Stories from a Dynamic Continent, The World Bank Group, Africa Region, available at

World Water Forum (2006) Drops of information by region, background documents for 4th World Water Forum, Mexico, available at

Survey >>

Design and CMS by Adept